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Stargate's FAQ   [  Topics  | Groups  | Last  | Expand  | Search  | Print  | Documentation ]
Folder open  META Questions [ Expand ]
  Question ?  What is the Gnu Public Licence   
  Question ?  What does the name SOLSYS stand for ?   
  Question ?  What is a Kibit ? Or why does my OS show me less space than the manufacturer of the Disk ?   
  Question ?  Why do I not see the full 4GB Ram on my system ?   
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Folder open  Answers
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Question ? What is the Gnu Public Licence   [
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  The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software - to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.
Note that there are 2 Version of the GPL - V2 and v3 that are used at the moment.
Check the Full Paper in the related Files Section. 

Entered by smurphy on Saturday, 18 August 2007 @ 22:56:22  
Nothing Specific - META Questions, # Hits: 53988

Attach   GPL_V2.txt  [ 15,131 bytes - text/plain ]
Attach   GPL_V3.txt  [ 35,148 bytes - text/plain ]
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Question ? What does the name SOLSYS stand for ?   [
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 As I searched for a domain name - I didn't find anything suitable for stargate (Server system). Everything was used already, but the abbreviation for the Solar System (solsys) did still exist. 

Entered by smurphy on Sunday, 17 June 2001 @ 02:00:32  
Nothing Specific - META Questions, # Hits: 53869
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Question ? What is a Kibit ? Or why does my OS show me less space than the manufacturer of the Disk ?   [
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 Of course everyone knows that 1 Kilobyte equals to 1.024 bytes. Well - this is wrong !

A kibibit (a contraction of kilo binary digit) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated Kibit, or sometimes Kib. (Note that the abbreviation is capitalized, while kbit is not.)

1 kibibit = 210 bits = 1,024 bits
1 kibibit = 27 bytes = 128 bytes

The kibibit is closely related to the kilobit, which can either be a synonym for kibibit, or refer to 103 bits = 1,000 bits, depending on context.
The National Institute of Science and Technologies notes that

it is important to recognize that the new prefixes for binary multiples are not part of the International System of Units (SI), the modern metric system.

It should also be noted that they are not in general use among professional software and electrical engineers, who generally use decimal prefixes when referring to binary quantities.

In short - we need to make the difference between the Metric Prefix system - this one handles the comon Kilo naming convention, and the Binary prefix systems - which is the real definition for binary formats as found on harddisks.

The following table shows you the comon namings and sizes

Metric (Symbol)Std. SI Binary (Symbol)Value
kilobit (kb) 103 bit kibibit (Kibit) 210 bit
megabit (Mb) 106 bit mebibit (Mibit) 220 bit
gigabit (Gb) 109 bit gibibit (Gibit) 230 bit
terabit (Tb) 1012 bit tebibit (Tibit) 240 bit
petabit (Pb) 1015 bit pebibit (Pibit) 250 bit
exabit (Eb) 1018 bit exbibit (Eibit) 260 bit
zettabit (Zb) 1021 bit zebibit (Zibit) 270 bit
yottabit (Yb) 1024 bit yobibit (Yibit) 280 bit

BTW - same also applies to the Byte fraction

Metric (Symbol)Std. SI Binary (Symbol)Value
kilobyte (kb) 103 byte kibibyte (Kibyte) 210 byte
megabyte (Mb) 106 byte mebibyte (Mibyte) 220 byte
gigabyte (Gb) 109 byte gibibyte (Gibyte) 230 byte
terabyte (Tb) 1012 byte tebibyte (Tibyte) 240 byte
petabyte (Pb) 1015 byte pebibyte (Pibyte) 250 byte
exabyte (Eb) 1018 byte exbibyte (Eibyte) 260 byte
zettabyte (Zb) 1021 byte zebibyte (Zibyte) 270 byte
yottabyte (Yb) 1024 byte yobibyte (Yibyte) 280 byte

By looking at these 2 previous tables - you might ask yourself - but what is the difference. Well - really only if you handle Bytes or Bits. This is the main differenciator.
So - what does this mean for us ? Check for yourself with some examples:

MediaMetric SystemBinary System
100GB Harddisk100 Gigabyte93,1 Gibibyte
DVD Rom 54,7 Gigabyte4,37 Gibibyte
CD Rom 700 Megabyte700 Mebibyte
1 GB Ram1,074 Gigabyte1 Gibibyte
USB Stick 8GB8 Gigabyte7,45 Gibibyte
DSL 2000 2,0 Megabit1,91 Mebibit
Memory Interface 256Bit 256 Bit256 Bit
Memory Interface 1.024Bit 1,024 Kilobit1 Kibibit
 

Entered by smurphy on Tuesday, 09 October 2007 @ 14:21:38  
Nothing Specific - META Questions, # Hits: 52983
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Question ? Why do I not see the full 4GB Ram on my system ?   [
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 This has mainly to do with the number of memory address lanes available to the system, and how the OS uses and addresses the memory itself. But first off - if you have 4GiBytes of Memory in your system, chances are you will see only 3.25GiBytes available.

This is mainly due to the fact, that all PCI/PCI-eX Devices allocate some memory for mapped IO Calls / DMA accesses, and to be able to access this reserved memory in a linear way, you need to be able to talk to these in 32 bit mode - thus the 4GiBytes limit. Note that the missing memory has been mapped by the physical extension cards starting from the upper 4GiByte limit downwards. Means the more memory a card allocates and the more extension cards you have, the more memory will be missing.

Even on 64Bit CPU/OS's combinations you may see this beheavior. Many extension cards still use 32Bit registers. These can only address the first 4GiByte linearly, thus allocate memory from 4GiByte on downwards - recreating the problems due to backwards compatibility. 

Entered by smurphy on Thursday, 11 October 2007 @ 11:06:29  
META FAQ - META Questions, # Hits: 51730
 
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